Cats as Invasive Species
Driscoll et al. (2007) evaluated the origin of the domestic cat and placed it in the Near East (Middle East)
Cats as Predators
Loss et al. (2013) estimated that cats in the U.S. kill about 2.4 billion birds every year (31% by owned cats, 69% by unowned cats)
Doherty et al. (2016) estimated that cats have contributed to the extinction of 63 species worldwide.
Medina et al. (2011) estimated that feral cats have contributed to the extinction of 33 species on islands and remain a principle threat to 8% of the world’s critically endangered birds, mammals, and reptiles.
Bonnington et al. (2013) found that even the mere presence of a cat in the environment was sufficient to reduce avian survival and reproductive success (because cats scare the birds)
Loyd et al. (2013) showed pictures and videos of well-fed cats hunting and killing wildlife
Cats as Disease Vectors
NOAA fact sheet on Toxoplasma gondii (attached) which applies to all warm-blooded species, not just seals
National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control recommends that “stray dogs, cats, and ferrets be removed from the community” and acknowledges that “stray and feral cats serve as a significant source of rabies exposure risk.”
Roebling et al. (2013) reviewed the science regarding cats, rabies, and TNR
Gerhold and Jessup (2012) concluded that free-roaming cats are a disease risk
Torrey and Yolken (2013) concluded that the cat-excreted oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii are a public health risk
Ballash et al. (2014) showed that deer were becoming infected with Toxoplasma gondii and that the infection was likely a result of feral cat colonies
Florida Department of Health, Rabies Prevention and Control specifically talks about how managing cats outdoors is “untenable on public health grounds” (p. viii)
A Case of Letting the Cat out of the Bag counters the claims of TNR as a humane method of population reduction.
Longcore et al. (2009) reviewed the claims of TNR programs
Foley et al. (2005) reviewed two long-term TNR programs in CA and FL and found them unsuccessful
Andersen et al. (2004) modeled the efficacy of multiple feral cat control strategies and found that TNR would need an annual neutering rate of more than 75% of the population (attached)
Barrows (2004) considered the professional, ethical, and legal implications of TNR
Castillo and Clarke (2003) found TNR resulted in no change in one cat colony and an increase in another (by creating an attractive place to dump cats)
Gunther et al. (2011) debunks the “vacuum effect” that so many TNR groups point to (attached)
Relevant Position Statements