Articles Critical of TNR

Cats as Invasive Species

The Case for Controlling the Cat Population

Western Governors Association (#13)

International Union for the Conservation of Nature

Driscoll et al. (2007) evaluated the origin of the domestic cat and placed it in the Near East (Middle East)

National Park Service

Cats as Predators

A Single Male Cat’s Reign of Terror relates how a single cat shutdown a bird sanctuary after instilling fear in the birds using the area to nest, showing the impact of cats beyond the killing of birds creates fear in local populations.

Loss et al. (2013) estimated that cats in the U.S. kill about 2.4 billion birds every year (31% by owned cats, 69% by unowned cats)

Doherty et al. (2016) estimated that cats have contributed to the extinction of 63 species worldwide.

Medina et al. (2011) estimated that feral cats have contributed to the extinction of 33 species on islands and remain a principle threat to 8% of the world’s critically endangered birds, mammals, and reptiles.

Bonnington et al. (2013) found that even the mere presence of a cat in the environment was sufficient to reduce avian survival and reproductive success (because cats scare the birds)

Loyd et al. (2013) showed pictures and videos of well-fed cats hunting and killing wildlife

American Bird Conservancy video on experiences of wildlife rehabilitators

Cats as Disease Vectors

Susceptability of Cats To SARS-Coronavirus-2

NOAA fact sheet on Toxoplasma gondii (attached) which applies to all warm-blooded species, not just seals

National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians Compendium of Animal Rabies Prevention and Control recommends that “stray dogs, cats, and ferrets be removed from the community” and acknowledges that “stray and feral cats serve as a significant source of rabies exposure risk.”

Roebling et al. (2013) reviewed the science regarding cats, rabies, and TNR

Gerhold and Jessup (2012) concluded that free-roaming cats are a disease risk

Torrey and Yolken (2013) concluded that the cat-excreted oocysts of Toxoplasma gondii are a public health risk

Ballash et al. (2014) showed that deer were becoming infected with Toxoplasma gondii and that the infection was likely a result of feral cat colonies

Florida Department of Health, Rabies Prevention and Control specifically talks about how managing cats outdoors is “untenable on public health grounds” (p. viii)

TNR Research

A Case of Letting the Cat out of the Bag counters the claims of TNR as a humane method of population reduction.

Longcore et al. (2009) reviewed the claims of TNR programs

Foley et al. (2005) reviewed two long-term TNR programs in CA and FL and found them unsuccessful

Andersen et al. (2004) modeled the efficacy of multiple feral cat control strategies and found that TNR would need an annual neutering rate of more than 75% of the population (attached)

Barrows (2004) considered the professional, ethical, and legal implications of TNR

Castillo and Clarke (2003) found TNR resulted in no change in one cat colony and an increase in another (by creating an attractive place to dump cats)

Gunther et al. (2011) debunks the “vacuum effect” that so many TNR groups point to (attached)

Relevant Position Statements

American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians

Association of Avian Veterinarians

International Wildlife Rehabilitation Council

National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians

Texas Parks and Wildlife

The Wildlife Society


Letter from U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service

ABC v New York State Parks

City of Albuquerque lawsuit

American Bird Conservancy model ordinance recommendation